Essays on willliam graham sumner

If public positions are granted on these grounds of sentiment or favoritism, the abuse is to be condemned on the ground of the harm done to the public interest; but I now desire to point out another thing which is constantly forgotten.

william graham sumner social darwinism

Whence, then, does he obtain a right to be taught or reformed at the public expense? These have been called militancy and industrialism.

William graham sumner quotes

But when you come to the laws of the social order, we know very little about them. In one case only had he heard of war for any other reason; three brothers, Barolongs, fought over one woman, and their tribe had remained divided, up to the time of writing, into three parties. Now with these definitions and general conceptions in mind, let us turn to the special class of facts to which, as I said at the outset, I invite your attention. This is the house-peace. The reason why Sumner's positions will eventually be vindicated is because they are the result of the hardest kind of study, over many years, by a realist with insight. Such a group, therefore, has a common interest. They are not confined to classes or to nations or particular ages of the world. These motives come under hunger, or the food-quest, or more widely under the economic effort to win subsistence. When he leaves it he is fair game, whether enemy, friend, or neighbor. We see that under a regime of liberty and equality before that law, we get the highest possible development of independence, self-reliance, individual energy, and enterprise, but we get these high social virtues at the expense of old sentimental ties which used to unite baron and retainer. Upon his death, an obituary was published in the American Journal of Sociology. Albert Galloway Keller, pp. The law of the conservation of energy is not simply a law of physics; it is a law of the whole moral universe, and the order and truth of all things conceivable by man depends upon it. The evil and abuse which people are groping after in all these denunciations is jobbery. A man who, by superior education and experience of business, is in a position to advise a struggling man of the wages class, is certainly held to do so and will, I believe, always be willing and glad to do so; but this sort of activity lies in the range of private and personal relations.

This is about all I know of my ancestry. They are always forgotten by sentimentalists, philanthropists, reformers, enthusiasts, and every description of speculator in sociology, political economy, or political science.

Now a society based on status is one in which classes, ranks,interests, industries, guilds, associations, etc.

Men are proposed for clerkships on the ground of service in the army twenty years ago, or for customhouse inspectors on the ground of public services in the organization of political parties.

william graham sumner ethical theory

Sumner's unrelenting, though often lonely, championship of hard money and free trade deserves recalling for the same reason that a military strategist studies the campaigns of doughty fighters of the past. If an inundation takes place anywhere, constituting a public calamity and an inundation takes place somewhere in the civilized world nearly every yearpublic attention is attracted and public appeals are made, but the losses by great inundations must be insignificant compared with the losses by runaway horses, which, taken separately, scarcely obtain mention in a local newspaper.

William graham sumner ingroups and outgroups

As the kings gained real power and prestige in the feudal states they made the king's peace Edition: current; Page: [22] a great reality; it went with the development of the modern state. In the appeals which are made, the terms "the poor" and "the weak" are used as if they were terms of exact definition. My grandfather had a good trade, which was ruined by machinery. There is a doctrine floating about in our literature that we are born to the inheritance of certain rights. In seasons of ordinary prosperity, persons who become insolvent have to get out of their troubles as they can. The Californian hydraulic miners have washed the gold out of the hillsides and have washed the dirt down into the valleys to the ruin of the rivers and the farms. I am thinking of how Folkways reached a sales-figure in its twenty-fifth year that was almost four times the average of its first five years. The householder has a dignity and prerogative in his house, however humble his social position may be; hence the maxim that a man's house is his castle goes back to the beginning of civilization. Since they select it, it is fair to suppose that they are fit for it, would succeed at it, and would benefit society by practicing it; but they are arbitrarily excluded from it and are perhaps pushed down into the class of unskilled laborers. It must have control of a certain area of land; hence it comes into collision of interest with every other group. He believed that these were the most powerful influences on human behavior, even when irrational. He does not appeal to the emotions or excite the sentiments. It is the Forgotten Man again who has been subjected to the penalty while our minds were full of the drunkards, spendthrifts, gamblers, and other victims of dissipation. What we see is that men have always quarreled.
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William Graham Sumner Part 1